Snow Crabs: General and Population Info

Comeau, M., G. Y. Conan, G. Robichaud, and A. Jones. 1991. Life history patterns and population fluctuations of snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) in the fjord of Bonne Bay on the west coast of Newfoundland, Canada––from 1983 to 1990. Can Tech Rep Fish Aquat Sci 1817: 73 p.

Ernst, B., J. M. Orensanz, and D. A. Armstrong. 2005. Spatial dynamics of female snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) in the eastern Bering Sea. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62: 250–268.

Foyle, T. P., R. K. O’Dor, and R. W. Elner. 1989. Energetically defining the thermal limits of the snow crab. Journal of Experimental Biology 145: 371-393.

Jadamec, L. S., W. E. Donaldson, and P. Cullenberg. 1999. Biological field techniques for Chionoecetes crabs. University of Alaska Sea Grant. AK-SG-99-02, Fairbanks.

Kruse, G. H., A. V. Tyler, B. Sainte-Marie, and D. Pengilly. 2007. A workshop on mechanisms affecting year-class strength formation in snow crabs (Chionoecetes opilio) in the eastern Bering Sea. Alaska Fishery Research Bulletin 12: 277-290.

North Pacific Fishery Management Council. 2008. Stock assessment and fishery evaluation report for the king and Tanner crab fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands regions. North Pacfic Fishery Management Council, Anchorage.

Otto, R.S. 1998. Assessment of the eastern Bering Sea snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio, stock under the terminal molting hypothesis. In Proceedings of the North Pacific Symposium on Invertebrate Stock Assessment and Management. Edited by G.S. Jamieson and A. Campbell. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 125. pp. 109-124.

Urban, D., D. Penguilly, L. Jadamec, and S. C. Byersdorfer (2002) Testing carapace morphology characteristics for field identification of Chionoecetes hybrids. In A.J. Paul, E. G. Dawe, R. Elner, G. S. Jamieson, G. H. Kruse, R. S. Otto, B. Sainte-Marie, T. C. Shirley, and D. Woodby (eds.), Crabs in Cold Water Regions: Biology, Management, and Economics. University of Alaska Sea Grant, AK-SG-02-01, Fairbanks, pp.97-113.

Zheng, J., G. H. Kruse, and D. R. Ackley. 2001. Spatial distribution and recruitment patterns of snow crabs in the Eastern Bering Sea. In: Kruse, G. H., N. Bes, A. Booth, M. W. Dorn, S. Hills, R. N. Lipcius, D. Pelletier, C. Roy, S. J. Smith, and D. Witherell (eds) Spatial processes and management of marine populations. University of Alaska Sea Grant, AK-SG-02-01, pp 233-255.

Zheng, J., S. Siddeek, D. Pengilly, and D. Woodby. 2002. Overview of recommended harvest strategy for snow crabs in the eastern Bering Sea. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Regional Information Report No. 5J02-03, Juneau.


Borst, D. W., H. Laufer, M. Landau, E. S. Chang, W. A. Hertz, F. C. Baker, and D. A. Schooley. 1987. Methyl farnesoate and its role in crustacean reproduction and development. Insect Biochemistry 17: 1123-1127.

Chang, E. S., and J. D. O’Connor. 1977. Secretion of a-ecdysone by crab y-organs in vitro. Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences in The United States of America 74: 615-618.

Kalavathy, Y., P. Mamatha, and P. S. Reddy. 1999. Methyl farnesoate stimulates testicular growth in the freshwater crab Oziotelphusa senex senex Fabricius. Naturwissenschaften 86: 394-395.

Keller, R., and E. Schmid. 1979. In vitro secretion of ecdysteroids by y-organs and lack of secretion by mandibular organs of the crayfish following molt induction. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology 130: 347-353.

Kingan, T. G. 1989. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay: applications in the assay of peptides, steroids, and cyclic nucleotides. Analytical Biochemistry 183: 283-289.

Kumar, M. B., D. W. Potter, R. E. Hormann, A. Edwards, C. M. Tice, H. C. Smith, M. A. Dipietro, M. Polley, M. Lawless, P. R. N. Wolohan, D. R. Kethidi, and S. R. Palli. 2004. Highly flexible ligand binding pocket of ecdysone receptor: a single amino acid change leads to discrimination between two groups of nonsteroidal ecdysone agonists. Journal of Biological Chemistry 279: 27211-27218.

Laufer, H., D. Borst, F. C. Baker, C. Carrasco, M. Sinkus, C. C. Reuter, L. W. Tsai, and D. A. Schooley. 1987. Identification of a juvenile hormone-like compound in a crustacean. Science 235: 202-205.

Laufer, H., M. Landau, E. Homola, and D. W. Borst. 1987. Methyl farnesoate: its site of synthesis and regulation of secretion in a juvenile crustacean. Insect Biochemistry 17: 1129-1131.

Laufer, H., J. S. B. Ahl, P. Takac, G. Scott, B. Stevens, J. E. Munk, and S. A. Payne. 1996. Hormone and reproductive strategies in spider crabs with emphasis on commercially important species, pp. 383-387. In, High Latitude Crabs: Biology, Management, and Economics. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biology, Management, and Economics of Crabs from High Latitude Habitats. University of Alaska Sea Grant College Program Report No. 96-02.

Laufer, H., J. Ahl, G. Rotllant, and B. Baclaski. 2002. Evidence that ecdysteroids and methyl farnesoate control allometric growth and differentiation in a crustacean. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 32: 205-210.

Laufer, H., N. Demir, X. Pa, J. D. Stuart, and J. S. B. Ahl. 2005. Methyl farnesoate controls adult male morphogenesis in the crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. Journal of Insect Physiology 51: 379-384.

Nagaraju, G. P. C. and D. W. Borst. 2008. Methyl farnesoate couples environmental changes to testicular development in the crab Carcinus maenas. Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 2773-2778.

Nagaraju, G. P. C., N. J. Suraj, and P. S. Reddy. 2003. Methyl farnesoate stimulates gonad development in Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (H. Milne Edwards) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae). Crustaceana 76: 1171-1178.

Rotllant, G., P. Takac, L. Liu, G. L. Scott, and H. Laufer. 2000. Role of ecdysteroids and methyl farnesoate in morphogenesis and terminal moult in polymorphic males of the spider crab Libinia emarginata. Aquaculture 190: 103-118.

Sagi, A., E. Homola, and H. Laufer. 1993. Distinct reproductive types of male spider crabs Libinia emarginata differ in circulating and synthesizing methyl farnesoate. Biological Bulletin 185: 168-173.

Sagi, A., J. S. B. Ahl, H. Danaee, and H. Laufer. 1994. Methyl farnesoate levels in male spider crabs exhibiting active reproductive behavior. Hormones and Behavior 28: 261-272.

Tamone, S. L., and E. S. Chang. 1993. Methyl farnesoate stimulates ecdysteroid secretion from crab y-organs in vitro. General and Comparative Endocrinology 89: 425-432.

Tamone, S. L., G. D. Prestwich, and E. S. Chang. 1997. Identification and characterization of methyl farnesoate binding proteins from the crab, Cancer magister. General and Comparative Endocrinology 105: 168-175.

Tamone, S. L., M. M. Adams, and J. M. Dutton. 2005. Effect of eyestalk-ablation on circulating ecdysteroids in hemolymph of snow crabs, Chionoecetes opilio: Physiological evidence for a terminal molt. Integrative and Comparative Biology 45: 166-171.

Tamone, S. L., S. J. Taggart, A. G. Andrews, J. Mondragon, and J. K. Nielson. 2007. The relationship between circulating ecdysteroids and chela allometry in male tanner crabs: Evidence for a terminal molt in the genus Chionoecetes. Journal of Crustacean Biology 27: 635-642.

Thomton, J. D., S. L. Tamone, and S. Atkinson. 2006. Circulating ecdysteroid concentrations in Alaskan Dungeness crab (Cancer magister). Journal of Crustacean Biology 26: 176-181.


Beninger, P. G., R. W. Elner, T. P. Foyle, and P. H. Odense. 1988. Functional anatomy of the male reproductive system and the female spermatheca in the snow crab Chionoecetes opilio (O. Fabricius) (Decapoda: Majidae) and a hypothesis for fertilization. Journal of Crustacean Biology 8: 322-332.

Comeau, M., and G. Y. Conan. 1992. Morphometry and gonad maturity of male snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49: 2460-2468.

Conan, G. Y., and M. Comeau. 1986. Functional maturity and terminal molt of male snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43: 1710-1719.

Elner, R. W., and P. G. Beninger. 1992. The reproductive biology of snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio: a synthesis of recent contributions. American Zoologist 32: 524-533.

Sainte-Marie, G., and B. Sainte-Marie. 1998. Morphology of the spermatheca, oviduct, intermediate chamber, and vagina of the adult snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio). Canadian Journal of Zoology 76: 1589-1604.

Sainte-Marie, B., and G. A. Lovrich. 1994. Delivery and storage of sperm at first mating of female Chionoecetes opilio (Brachyura: Majidae) in relation to size and morphometric maturity of male parent. Journal of Crustacean Biology 14: 508-521.

Sainte-Marie, B., S. Raymond, and J. C. Brethes. 1995. Growth and maturation of the benthic stages of male snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio (Brachyura: Majidae). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52: 903-924.

Sainte-Marie, B., T. Gosselin, J. Sévigny, and N. Urbani. 2008. The snow crab mating system: Opportunity for natural and unnatural selection in a changing environment. Bulletin of Marine Science 83: 131-161.


Lovrich, G. A., and B. Sainte-Marie (1997) Cannibalism in the snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio (O. Fabricius) (Brachyura: Majidae), and its potential importance to recruitment. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 211:225-245.

Squires, H. J., and E. G. Dawe (2003) Stomach contents of snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio, Decapoda, Brachyura) from the northeast Newfoundland shelf. J Northwest Atl Fish Sci 32:27-38.

Wieczorek, S. K., and R. G. Hooper (1995) Relationship between diet and food availability in the snow crab Chionoecetes opilio (O. Fabricius) in Bonne Bay, Newfoundland. Journal of Crustacean Biology 15: 236-247.