"Spores!?! Is this bad, guys? Is this bad??"
Closer analysis of the orange substance revealed the goo to be rust spores. The spores come from fungal infections on plants before being released into the air.
samples of the orange spores from Kivalina
fungal rust spores (Order: Uredinales)
So, while crabs are off the hook, the people of Kivalina may still be affected by this not-yet-identified fungal spore: respiratory infections, possible effects on their fresh water stores, and an apparent fish kill the night the spores first appeared.